George Lukacs was born in Hungary in 1885. He studied in Budapest, Berlin and Heidelberg and published his first book on literary criticism, Soul and Form in 1910. This was followed by The Theory of the Novel (1916).
In 1918 Lukacs joined the Hungarian Communist Party and supported the Soviet Republic established by Bela Kun in 1919. Admiral Miklos Horthy, commander-in-chief of the Imperial and Royal Fleet, returned to Hungary in November 1919 and led the overthrow of the Soviet Republic.
Lukacs was forced into exile and lived in Vienna for ten years. In 1923 he published History and Class Consciousness. In 1930 he moved to the Soviet Union where he remained until the final stages of the Second World War. In 1944 Lukacs returned to Hungary.
The Hungarian Uprising began on 23rd October by a peaceful manifestation of students in Budapest. The students demanded an end to Soviet occupation and the implementation of "true socialism". The following day commissioned officers and soldiers joined the students on the streets of Budapest. Stalin's statue was brought down and the protesters chanted "Russians go home", "Away with Gero" and "Long Live Nagy".
On 25th October Soviet tanks opened fire on protesters in Parliament Square. One journalist at the scene saw 12 dead bodies and estimated that 170 had been wounded. Shocked by these events the Central Committee of the Communist Party forced Erno Gero to resign from office and replaced him with Janos Kadar.
Imre Nagy now went on Radio Kossuth and announced he had taken over the leadership of the Government as Chairman of the Council of Ministers." He also promised the "the far-reaching democratization of Hungarian public life, the realisation of a Hungarian road to socialism in accord with our own national characteristics, and the realisation of our lofty national aim: the radical improvement of the workers' living conditions."
Nagy appointed Lukacs as Minister of Culture. However, on 4th November 1956 Nikita Khrushchev sent the Red Army into Hungary. Lukacs was deported to Romania but was allowed to return to Budapest in 1957.
George Lukacs died in 1971.