Otto Liman von Sanders was born in 1855. He served in staff and divisional commands before becoming head of the German military mission to Turkey in 1913. Despite Russian protests, Sanders became Inspector General of the Turkish Army in January, 1914.
Sanders became commander of the Turkish First Army but in March 1915, was replaced by Baron von der Goltz. Sanders was now sent to the Dardanelles with the Fifth Army and was credited with masterminding the Allied defeat at Gallipoli. He was interviewed by Raymond Gram Swing of the Chicago Daily News: "The lunch with General von Sanders and his staff was not informative. The General was terse and reticent. He did not like strangers about. I am sure he did not like Americans. But he did speak his praise for his Turkish troops and said he had no doubt that the Allies would not be able to get through. If they had landed a few days before March 18, he said, they would have found only light forces below the narrows and no heavy ones above them. The story then would have been different. But he had been given time to bring up reinforcements and prepare his positions."
In February, 1918, Sanders took command of the Turkish-German Army on the Palestine Front but was defeated by General Edmund Allenby and his much larger army. After the Armistice Sanders was arrested by the British as a war criminal but was released in August 1919.
Otto Liman von Sanders died in 1929.