Cold War : 14 to 18 years
McCarthyism: A comprehensive encyclopaedia of McCarthyism. Each entry contains a narrative, illustrations and primary sources. The text within each entry is hypertexted to other relevant pages in the encyclopedia. In this way it is possible to research individual people and events in great detail. The sources are also hypertexted so the student is able to find out about the writer, artist, newspaper, organization, etc., that produced the material. So far there are sections on: Events, Issues & Organizations, Communist Spies, The Investigators, The Informers and Blacklisted.
Cold War Encyclopedia: As well as 160 biographies there are 74 articles on subjects such as the Atomic Bomb, Berlin Wall, Bay of Pigs, Comintern, Cuban Missile Crisis, Domino Theory, Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic, Hallstein Doctrine, Hungarian Uprising, Korean War, Marshall Aid, McCarthyism, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Nuclear Arms Race, Ostpolitik, Perestroika, Prague Spring, Solidarnosc, Schuman Plan, Truman Doctrine, U-2 Crisis, Vietnam War and the Warsaw Pact.
Cuban Missile Crisis: In October 1962 the world was on the verge of a nuclear war. President Kennedy of the United States had issued a war-alert command. Polaris submarines armed with nuclear weapons took up positions close to the Soviet Union. B-52 bombers also with nuclear weapons were ordered into the air. A further 105 short-range missiles in Europe and 156 intercontinental missiles in the United States were prepared for firing at the Soviet Union. What had brought the world to the brink of destruction? These activities cover the history of Cuba, Fidel Castro, Bay of Pigs, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy and ends up with a simulation on the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Berlin Blockade: After the defeat of Germany in 1945 the country was divided into four zones. Each zone was controlled by a different country - Britain, USA, France, USSR. Germany's capital Berlin was also divided into four zones. However, Berlin was deep inside Soviet territory. As a result, West Berlin became a very clear example of the contrasting attitudes of Stalin towards Germany and the attitudes of the other three powers. Stalin decided that the Western powers would have to be driven from West Berlin. In the Summer of 1948 he blocked all road, rail and water links to West Berlin from the Western zones. This Public Record Office activity looks at one of the most important events of the Cold War.
Profiles: Cold War Warriors: This CNN website provides a collection of biographies of important figures in the Cold War. This includes Konrad Adenauer, Salvador Allende, Yuri Andropov, Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Willy Brandt, Leonid Brezhnev, George Bush, Jimmy Carter, James F. Byrnes, Fidel Castro, Winston Churchill, Alexander Dubcek, Allen Dulles, John Foster Dulles, Dwight Eisenhower, Mikhail Gorbachev, Vaclav Havel, Andrei Gromyko, Erich Honecker, Ho Chi Minh, Lyndon B. Johnson, George Kennan, Nikita Khrushchev, John F. Kennedy, Henry Kissinger, Jan Masaryk, Vyacheslav Molotov, Richard Nixon, Joseph Stalin, Ronald Reagan and Harry S. Truman.
Questia: McCarthyism: Questia is an online library that provides access to the world's largest online collection of books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences. You can read every title cover to cover. The content - selected by professional collection development librarians - is not available elsewhere on the Internet. To complement the library, Questia offers a range of search, note-taking, and writing tools. These tools help students locate the most relevant information on their topics quickly, quote and cite correctly, and create properly formatted footnotes and bibliographies automatically. The section on McCarthyism includes McCarthyism: The Great American Red Scare McCarthyism, the Fight for America, The Intellectuals and McCarthy, The Politics of Fear: Joseph R. McCarthy and the Senate, Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective, The Great Red Menace and Cold War Fugitive: A Personal Story of the McCarthy Years.
The Korean War: This impressive website has been produced by the US Department of Defense to commemorate the 1.8 million veterans who served in the Korean War. There are sections entitled History of the Korean War, Medal of Honor Recipients, Images, Just for Teachers and Frequently Asked Questions. The site also includes interviews with 14 soldiers who took part in the war.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy: John McAdams' website provides a comprehensive overview of the issues, with pages on Dealey Plaza, the Single Bullet Theory, Lee Harvey Oswald, Jack Ruby, the movie "JFK," Jim Garrison's New Orleans investigation, and theories linking the assassination to the CIA and the Vietnam War. A key purpose of the site is to debunk the conspiracy theories and conspiracy factoids that have dominated public perceptions of the assassination. Thus it is especially useful to people who have read mostly conspiracy books, or seen one or more conspiracy videos, or seen the movie "JFK" and want to know the "rest of the story." There are numerous primary sources, including Oswald's own political writings, witness testimony, FBI reports, video and audio clips, and numerous photos.
Collective Memories of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis was one of the most important conflicts of the cold war period. This was the first time that the two superpowers had come so close to starting a nuclear war. This website run by Brown University is a collection of individual accounts of the crisis. It is also possible to add your own story to the collection.
Mikhail Gorbachev Internet Archive: In 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev won the Nobel Peace Prize. In recognition of this achievement the Norwegian Nobel Institute has created the Gorbachev Internet Archive. The website includes links to a variety of biographies of Gorbachev. It also features speeches, articles, photographs and even a joke about Gorbachev submitted by Boris Yeltsin.
Cold War: To complement CNN's Cold War documentary series, CNN Interactive, has created this outstanding website on the subject. Created by a team of more than a dozen editors, writers and producers, the Cold War website includes interactive maps, rare archival footage online, biographies of key figures and recently declassified documents. An added attraction is the facility for visitors to tour Cold War capitals through 3-D images.
John F. Kennedy: The main objective of the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum is to advance the study and understanding of President Kennedy's life and career and the times in which he lived; and to promote a greater appreciation of America's political and cultural heritage, the process of governing and the importance of public service. The library's website includes a detailed biography and a collection of speeches and photographs.
The Cold War: The Cold War International History Project disseminates new information and perspectives on the history of the Cold War. The project supports the full and prompt release of historical materials by governments on all sides of the Cold War, and seeks to accelerate the process of integrating new sources, materials and perspectives from the former "Communist bloc" with the historiography of the Cold War which has been written over the past few decades largely by Western scholars reliant on Western archival sources. It also seeks to transcend barriers of language, geography, and regional specialization to create new links among scholars interested in Cold War history. Among the activities undertaken by the project to promote this aim are a periodic Bulletin and other publications to disseminate new findings, views, and activities pertaining to Cold War history.
The Cold War: There are 6 galleries in the Public Record Office Cold War Exhibition, each containing a number of case studies. Each Case Study is designed so that it can be used as a 'stand alone' item in one or two classroom sessions. However, each Case Study in a Gallery is linked to form a more coherent area of research. This has been done to give students and teachers the maximum amount of flexibility. Each Gallery is accompanied by a timeline and a glossary to help students and teachers in putting the source material into context. Each source is accompanied, where appropriate, by useful notes and a transcript. At various points throughout the Exhibition, there are links to other websites where extra information or other resources can be found.
Harry S. Truman: The Presidential Years: At the Truman Presidential Museum & Library there is a 10,500-square-foot exhibition of the major issues and events of Harry S. Truman's presidency. There is now a website version of this exhibition and it includes sections on: First Four Months, Decision to Drop the Bomb, Postwar Challenges, Europe 1947, Origins of the Cold War, Recognition of Israel, Second Term, Cold War Turns Hot, America 1952, Leaving Office, Legacy Gallery and A Living Legacy.
Joseph Stalin Biographical Chronicle: Lenin wrote in December 1922 that "Comrade Stalin, having become General Secretary, has concentrated enormous power in his hands: and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution. I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post and appointing someone else who differs from Stalin in one weighty respect: being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite, more considerate of his comrades." This advice was not taken and Stalin became one of the most detested dictators in history. This website provides a detailed biography of Joseph Stalin. It also includes numerous photographs and a collection of his speeches.
East German Propaganda: Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the 20th Century by giving them access to the primary material.
Heroes and Villains: Learning Curve exhibitions provide in-depth information, organized into galleries. Each gallery is an investigation into a theme using primary material, linked to an overall question. Interactive tasks and teacher's notes are included. This Learning Curve exhibition, Heroes and Villains, looks at five case-studies: Winston Churchill and Dresden, J. F. Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis, Mussolini and Abyssinia, Stalin and the Industrialization of the USSR and Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb.
Douglas MacArthur: No soldier in modern history has been more admired - or more reviled than Douglas MacArthur. The liberator of the Philippines, shogun of Occupied Japan, brilliant victor of the Battle of Inchon, was an admired national hero when he was suddenly relieved of his command. This PBS website concentrates on MacArthur in the Philippines during the Second World War and his conflict with Harry S. Truman in 1951.
Alger Hiss Story: This website is an authoritative portal for access to primary information about Alger Hiss, the Hiss case and the early Cold War years - including new scholarship, newly released official documents from various governments and government agencies, and the archival material, such as trial testimony, court and government records and commentary, collected in many libraries and online repositories.
East German Propaganda: Propaganda was central to Nazi Germany and the postwar German Democratic Republic. The German Propaganda Archive website maintained by Randall Bytwerk, includes both propaganda itself and material produced for the guidance of propagandists. The goal is to help people understand the two great totalitarian systems of the 20th Century by giving them access to the primary material. The website includes speeches, posters, cartoons and photographs.
Berlin Wall Online: On 13th August 1961 the East German security forces suddenly sealed off sixty-eight of the eighty crossing points in Berlin, erecting overnight a barrier of barbed wire and, in places, of concrete across the city and restricting all interzonal movements. Western governments protested at the erection of this Berlin Wall and American concern was emphasized by a visit made by President Kennedy to the city in June 1963. This website provides a detailed history of the Berlin Wall.
Berlin Wall: In the fifteen years following the Second World War over 3 million people emigrated from the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) to Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). In August 1961, Erich Honecker ordered the blocking off East Berlin from West Berlin by means of barbed wire and anti-tank obstacles in an attempt to stem the flow of refugees. Streets were torn up, and barricades of paving stones were erected. People living in East Berlin and the German Democratic Republic were no longer allowed to enter West Berlin. This included 60,000 people who had working in the city. This article on the Berlin Wall by Burkhard Kirste is available in English and German.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: On 1949 April - Twelve states - Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the United States - sign the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington DC. This BBC website provides a chronology of key events in the history of Nato.
Cold War Policies 1945-1991: A collection of illustrated articles and outline notes on the Cold War. Subjects covered so far include Yalta: The Cold War Begins, Containment 1947-49, The Crisis of Harry Truman, Cold War Spies, NATO, Coercion 1950-1968, Détente 1968-1980, Konrad Adenauer, Willy Brandt and Ostpolitik, The Arms Race Renewed, Glasnost, Mikhail Gorbachev, Arms Control Treaties and The Triumph of Solidarity.
China: 50 Years of Communism: To mark 50 years of communist rule in China, BBC News Online's special coverage looks back at the birth of the People's Republic and takes stock of what the future might hold for its people. Articles include Mao's Legacy, Images of the Cultural Revolution, China's Foreign Fears and the People's Republic at 50. The website also includes a very good China's Communist Revolution Glossary.
Cold War Project: The Cold War began in 1945 and ended with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. This website provides an indepth look at this conflict and includes sections on East European Intelligence Documents, Soviet Disinformation, Berlin Wall, Uprising in East Berlin, Hungarian Revolution, Czechoslovakia 1968, Poland 1956, Afghanistan 1979, Defectors, Agents and Double Agents, Soviet Gulags and Western Broadcasting in the Cold War.
Hungarian Uprising: In 1956 Hungary's new leader Imre Nagy removed state control of the mass media and encouraged public discussion on political and economic reform. Nagy also released anti-communists from prison and talked about holding free elections and withdrawing Hungary from the Warsaw Pact. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union, became increasingly concerned about these developments and on 4th November 1956 he sent the Red Army into Hungary. During the Hungarian Uprising an estimated 20,000 people were killed.
Czechoslovakia 1968: It has been 30 years since Soviet troops marched and tanks rolled down Wenceslas Square in Czechoslovakia's capital to crush a reform movement known as Prague Spring. Alexander Dubcek's attempts to create "socialism with a human face" are often seen as historical and ideological forerunners to Mikhail Gorbachev's reform policies of glasnost and perestroika in the 1980s in the USSR. The events of 1968 shattered many illusions about Socialism and the Soviet system - both in Czechoslovakia and in the West. This website, produced by Radio Free Europe, provides a comprehensive account of these events.
1953 German Uprising: A German historian has accused the British of "betraying" an anti-communist uprising in the early years of the German Democratic Republic which was eventually put down by Soviet tanks. Mr Knabe, author of 17th June 1953: A German Uprising, said: "The demonstrators were bitterly disappointed, after the west's rhetoric about the liberation of Europe, and the encouragement of resistance, that when they went out on the streets, they received no support." In the book Hubertus Knabe claims that the western powers, in particular Britain led by Winston Churchill, declined to intervene because they feared a reunited Germany.
The Cold War: This website provides transcripts of interviews that took place in 1999 with important figures involved in events that made up the Cold War. This includes, James Baker, George Bush, Miklos Nemeth, Jeane Kirkpatrick, Richard Perle, Stansfield Turner, Caspar Weinberger, Yevgeni Yevtushenko, E. Howard Hunt , Paul H. Nitze, Robert McNamara, Condoleezza Rice, John Ehrlichman, Gerald Ford, Henry Kissinger, Melvin Laird, John Negroponte, Jimmy Carter, John F. Sigler, Eugene McCarthy, Bui Diem, Clark Clifford, Roger Hilsman, Theodore Sorensen, McGeorge Bundy, George Kennan, Oleg Troyanovski, Raymond Garthoff, Stefan Heym and Margit Hosseni.
Prague Spring: In 1965, Antonin Novotny, the president of Czechoslovakia, introduced a programme of decentralization. The main feature of the new system was that individual companies would have more freedom to decide on prices and wages. These reforms were slow to make an impact on the Czech economy and in September 1967, Alexander Dubcek, secretary of the Slovak Communist Party, presented a long list of grievances against the government. The following month there were large demonstrations against Novotny. In January 1968 the Czechoslovak Party Central Committee passed a vote of no confidence in Novotny and he was replaced by Dubcek as party secretary. Soon afterwards Dubcek made a speech where he stated: "We shall have to remove everything that strangles artistic and scientific creativeness." This website provides a detailed account of what became known as the Prague Spring.
Cold War Oral History Project: The History Department of the European Virtual School has just launched a Cold War Oral Project. The plan is to start threads where people can provide first-hand accounts on important Cold War events. This will include peoples accounts of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War, the building and pulling down of the Berlin Wall, the reunification of Germany, Communism in the Soviet Union, the decline of communism in Eastern Europe, etc. It is hoped that people will post their recollections from all over the world. This is something that students could get involved in by interviewing parents or grandparents about these events. If you want to become involved in this project register with the International Education Forum and join the debate.
Ronald Reagan and the Cold War: Several political commentators have claimed that Ronald Reagan was the man responsible for winning the Cold War. In 1987 Mikhail Gorbachev met with Reagan and signed the Immediate Nuclear Forces (INF) abolition treaty. Gorbachev also made it clear he would no longer interfere in the domestic policies of other countries in Eastern Europe and in 1989 announced the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan. Aware that Gorbachev would not send in Soviet tanks there were demonstrations against communist governments throughout Eastern Europe. Over the next few months the communists were ousted from power in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and East Germany. All these events took place while Reagan was president and has therefore got the credit for the fall of communism. However, should the credit really go to Gorbachev. If you have views on this subject register with the International Education Forum and join the debate.
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