Russian Revolution: 11 to 14 years
Russian Revolution Encyclopaedia: There are sections on: Events and Issues, 1860-1914 (20); Revolutionary Philosophers (8); Russian Revolutionaries, 1860-1910 (32); Russian Political and Military Figures: 1860-1920 (34); Events and Issues in Russia, 1914-20 (12); Russian Revolutionaries: 1914-20 (28); Political Groups and Organizations (10) and Foreign Witnesses of the Revolution (16). There are also online lessons and a historical simulation on the events between July, 1914 and November, 1917. All the students are given a character that was living in Russia at the time. The characters are then placed in four discussion groups: Group A (supporters of Nicholas II and the autocracy); Group B (liberals and moderate socialists); Group C (Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries) and Group D (Bolsheviks). Using their online biographies and resource materials, the students make a series of decisions based on the problems that faced Russia during this period.
The Romanov Dynasty: The Romanov dynasty ruled Russia from 1613 until the February Revolution of 1917. The family was descended from Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla, a Muscovite boyar who lived in the first half of the 14th century. The name Romanov was taken from Roman Yuriev, the father of Anastasia Romanova, who was the first wife of Tsar Ivan IV. Michael Romanov, grandnephew of Anastasia, was elected tsar by a National Assembly in 1613; he was the first of the dynasty to rule Russia. This website provides biographies of Important Romanov rulers including Peter I, whose reign marks the beginning of imperial Russia; Catherine II, a German who married into the family; Alexander I, who defeated Napoleon in 1812; and Alexander II, who emancipated the serfs in 1861.
The Mystery of Anastasia: This complete one hour online lesson takes a look at the issue of bias by comparing information on Anna Anderson, the woman who claimed to be Anastasia. The lesson begins with a brief description of the Russian royal family and the Revolution and assassination of the family. Pupils are tested on their understanding through a cloze passage. They are then presented with a table to complete from two pages of biased information and are shown how each page is evidence either that Anna Anderson was or was not Anastasia. After voting whether or not they believe Anna Anderson to be Anastasia they are given instructions and a writing frame to produce an essay on the topic.
Joseph Stalin Biographical Chronicle: Lenin wrote in December 1922 that "Comrade Stalin, having become General Secretary, has concentrated enormous power in his hands: and I am not sure that he always knows how to use that power with sufficient caution. I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post and appointing someone else who differs from Stalin in one weighty respect: being more tolerant, more loyal, more polite, more considerate of his comrades." This advice was not taken and Stalin became one of the most detested dictators in history. This website provides a detailed biography of Joseph Stalin. It also includes numerous photographs and a collection of his speeches.
The Russian Revolution: A comprehensive directory website on the Russian Revolution. The websites are listed under the categories of the February and October Revolutions, the Civil War, People, Political Parties, Images and Maps and Postmortem. There is also a FAQ section.
Leon Trotsky: History of the Russian Revolution: John Gowland (Australia), Alphanos Pangas (Greece) and David Walters (United States) have transcribed Leon Trotsky's The History of the Russian Revolution for the World Wide Web. Translated by Max Eastman in 1932, this edition comes in three volumes: The Overthrow of Tzarism, The Attempted Counter Revolution and The Triumph of the Soviets.
Anarchism and the Russian Revolution: This website looks at the role of the Bolsheviks in destroying workers democracy after the Russian Revolution and the creation of Stalinism. The authors argue that there was an anarchist alternative to both Leninism and the return of Czarism. The articles on the website were originally published in the Workers Solidarity Movement and includes the History of the Makhnovist Movement, The Makhnovist Army, Life, Times and the Confessions of Victor Serge and How Lenin led to Stalin.
Internet History Sourcebook: Russian Revolution: Another of the great websites produced as part of the Internet History Sourcebooks Project based at Fordham University in New York. The website, edited by Paul Halsall, provides a large collection of documents organized under the headings: The Tsarist State, Lenin, 1905 Revolution, 1917 Russian Revolution, Bolshevik Rule to 1924 and Stalinism.
Joseph Stalin Reference Archive: This website includes a detailed biography of Joseph Stalin plus a collection of articles written by Stalin. This includes Marxism and the National Question (1913), Our Disagreements (1921), Trotskyism or Lenism? (1924), October Revolution & Tactics of the Russian Communists (1924), The 16th Congress of the CPSU (1930), Dialectical and Historical Materialism (1938) and Marxism and Problems of Linguistics (1950).
Soviet Union, 1930-1933: The young Welsh journalist Gareth Jones, and former Foreign Affairs advisor to Lloyd George, visited Soviet Russia and Ukraine on three occasions between 1930 and 1933, reporting on Stalin's Five-Year Plan of Collectivisation and Industrialisation. However it was on his last visit in March 1933, that he internationally exposed the great Soviet Famine of 1932-33. He then publicly defended his allegations in response to Soviet rebuttals by Stalin's main apologist, Walter Duranty of the New York Times, which are covered on this fascinating website, along with several supporting documents, including articles and correspondence by Malcolm Muggeridge.
Joseph Stalin: It has been claimed that Saddam Hussein has a large library of books on Stalin. Before he gained power in Iraq he told a friend: "When we take over the government I'll turn this country into a Stalinist state." However, as Jonathan Freedland points out in today's Guardian, Stalin's greatest impact has been on the left. "Stalinism and its excesses have seared into the human mind a scepticism about all projects aimed at fundamental change. The fear is that any revolutionary ambition for society will always end in disaster, that any goal larger than gradual reform will lead to a bloodbath - and it is Stalin who stands in the cold, unbudging precedent." This website provides a detailed biography and a collection of primary sources on the life and times of Joseph Stalin.
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